tumor marker concept was first proposed in the United States NCI human immune and tumor immune diagnosis in the meeting, which was expressed in tumor cells shed into the blood, or other body fluids and tissues, the host produced for in vivo tumor response, and into the body fluids or tissues in substance.

Up to now, there are more than 100 kinds of tumor markers which can be used in clinical practice, and the classification of tumor markers is mainly based on the biochemical properties and the origin of the tissue, but there is no uniform and comprehensive standard for

.

has not yet been completely resolved due to the occurrence and development of tumor, which indicates that the tumor is not clear. There is no doubt that the definition of tumor markers will continue to be supplemented and revised.

from the point of view of laboratory testing, can be divided into:

Overview of

tumor markers

ideal serum / plasma tumor markers should be, the normal human blood does not exist, the presence of small tumors can be detected in different types of tumor specific antigen should be expressed.

but the fact is that the tumor specific antigen has not been confirmed.

serum / plasma tumor markers evaluation criteria:

Classification of

tumor antigens:

Does

tumor mark rise mean tumour?

The rise of

alone tumor markers does not mean that the correct use of tumor markers in clinical practice should include: screening, assisting in the diagnosis, predicting treatment efficacy, predicting prognosis, etc..

Several factors influencing

tumor markers:

these conditions lead to false positive results of tumor markers:

Analysis of 13 tumor markers

PSA (prostate specific antigen)

PSA is a specific marker for prostate cancer (Pca). The positive rate is higher than 63%. It can be used for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and the differential diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma.

should be noted that PSA is only a marker of prostate epithelial cells and is not a specific marker for Pca cells. The results showed that the normal PSA range of 0 ~ 4 ng/mL was used to screen the prostate cancer, and the results were not satisfactory. In addition, Pca volume, serum / plasma PSA did not increase significantly.

The upper bound of the normal range of

PSA increases with age. Procedures for the examination of the prostate, such as rectal palpation, cystoscopy, and prostate puncture;